Corrective Jaw Surgery (Orthognathic Surgery)
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Orthognathic surgery refers to the surgical correction of substantial abnormalities of the maxilla (upper jaw), the mandible (lower jaw), or both. The abnormality may be a birth defect, a growth defect, or the result of traumatic injuries to the jaws.
Orthognathic surgery is generally performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon to correct malocclusion (poor bite) in cases where routine orthodontic treatment has not or will not be effective. Orthognathic surgeries include the reconstruction of the mandible and/or maxilla.
There are several classifications of malocclusion (the improper alignment of teeth) which may require orthognathic surgery:
Class II Malocclusion
– This is identified when the lower anterior incisors lie significantly behind the upper anterior incisors during the biting process, in some cases hitting the soft tissue behind the upper incisors. This is commonly referred to as an overbite.
Class III Malocclusion – This is commonly known as an underbite and occurs when the lower anterior incisors and lower jaw are positioned beyond the upper teeth, making the lower jaw much more prominent than the upper jaw.
Reasons for orthognathic surgery
The malocclusion of the teeth can create destructive forces in combination with the powerful muscles that control the closing and opening of the jaw. These muscles generate a tremendous force when clenching, grinding or chewing. Misalignment can seriously damage the function and aesthetic appearance of the teeth in many ways if left untreated, such as:
Chronic Jaw, Muscle Pain & Headache
Difficulty Swallowing, Chewing, or Biting Food
What does orthognathic surgery involve?
When the oral surgeon identifies a patient as a candidate for orthognathic surgery, a complete photographic analysis is initially undertaken. This includes panoramic x-rays, cephalometric x-rays, models, and impressions. Your oral & maxillofacial surgeon, your orthodontist, and your dentist will work together and consider how the corrective surgery will impact both proper jaw function and the aesthetic appearance of the entire face.
Generally, orthodontic braces are necessary to align the arches and straighten the teeth prior to the surgery, and additionally, retainers may be used after the surgery. Orthognathic surgery generally requires a general anesthesia and a good deal of aftercare. Pain medication will be prescribed as necessary, and you’ll be given post treatment advice for your recovery. You may also be provided with a modified diet (if required).